Intel has pledged to have a CPU with 80 cores on it within 5 years and has a prototype to prove it. Intel showed off the CPU wafer at IDF which contains 80 teraflop chips which reportedly can process 1 trillion floating point operations per second. Now Moore's Law states that the number of transistors that can fit on a single IC will double every 18 months. This kind of a claim from Intel would most certainly test the boundaries and limits of that theory.
Additional information on this can be found over at EETimes.